Pressures on land use from increasing human populations leading to continued fragmentation of the remaining suitable habitat coupled with indiscriminate killing in defense of life and livestock and prey base depletion are recognized as being the principle causes for their decline.
Trade in Lions
Zambia allows the hunting of males as young as 2 years, which is the age at which male lions become mature (Packer et al., 2009).
Number of wild source lions estimated in international trade, 1999-2008: 520
Average annual wild source trade as percent of population size*: 2.2%
* Used average of Chardonnet (2002) and Bauer & van der Merwe (2004) studies
“Between 1999 and 2008, Zambia exported 567 lion specimens, the vast majority of which were trophies (498). This represents at least 530 lions (adding skins (29), live animals (3), and trophies (498)). All but nine specimens (three live animals plus six trophies) were from wild sources. The parts of at least 521 wild source lions were traded during the decade (adding wild source trophies (492) and skins (29)). However, one of the trophies of wild source originated in South Africa; thus the total number of wild source lions of Zambian origin exported is 520.
The main purpose of this trade was hunting trophies (470 of 567 specimens) and the U.S. was the main importer of these (262 of 470). Only 26 specimens were traded for other purposes including personal, commercial and scientific. Thus, it is of concern that 520 wild source lions were exported from Zambia during the decade; this is 22 percent of the population (520 of 2,350). Annualized, these exports represent over 2 percent of the population.
Packer et al. (2009) discussed the historic over-utilization of lions in Southern Africa, stating that off-take peaked then fell sharply in the 1980’s and 1990’s in Botswana, CAR, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. This downward harvest trend “most likely reflects declining population sizes: success rates (as measured by harvest/quota) have fallen” for lions (Packer et al., 2009). This occurred even as demand for lion trophies has grown in the U.S. and has held stable in the European Union since the mid-1990s. The steepest declines in lion harvests occurred in jurisdictions with the highest harvest intensities. Packer et al. (2009) identified Zambia as one of the countries where trophy hunting is likely to have contributed to the decline in lion populations in the 1980s and 1990s.”
Place J, Flocken J, Travers W, Waterland S, Telecky T, Kennedy C, Goyenechea A (2011) Petition to list the African Lion (Panthera leo leo) as endangered pursuant to the US Endangered Species Act. The International Fund for Animal Welfare, The Born Free Foundation, The Humane Society of the United States and Humane Society International, Defenders of Wildlife (pdf)
Packer C, Kosmala M, Cooley HS, Brink H, Pintea L, Garshelis D, Purchase G, Strauss M, Swanson A, Blame G, Hunter L, Nowell K (2009) Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores. PLoS ONE 4(6): e5941. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005941 (pdf).
Lions in Culture
“To contribute to the preservation of Zambia’s Natural heritage, ecosystem and biological diversity for present and future generations through the careful conservation of Zambia’s wildlife.”
“In 1999, the Government of the Republic of Zambia took decision to transform the former Department of National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) into an autonomous body, the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA). ZAWA is governed by the Zambia Wildlife Act, No. 12 of 1998 and has its own Board of Directors. The Board are responsible for managing the Authority under the policy guidance of the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources. The primary objectives of ZAWA are:
- To improve the quality of the life among communities in wildlife estates and maintenance of sustainable biodiversity in national parks and game management areas;
- To reverse the decline in wildlife resources;
- To improve wildlife resource management to a level which will secure sustainable flow of benefits from the resources; and
- To considerably improve the wildlife resource base investment in co-operation with the private sector and local communities.
ZAWA has a significant role to play in the economic development of Zambia and its economic realization will significantly contribute to the GDP of Zambia. These noble objectives outlined above, will be achieved by ensuring ZAWA’s integrity is upheld at all times and its commercial activities are managed prudently.
It is now intrinsic part of Government policy of focus on wildlife conservation. ZAWA will work much more closely and in partnership with the private sector engaged in tourism development than may have been the case in the past.”
To download Zambia’s Conservation Strategy and Action Plan for the African Lion click here.
This conservation strategy and action plan for the African lion in Zambia will assist the country in ensuring that the long-term survival of the species is guaranteed based on stakeholder partnerships and harmonization of the needs of lion conservation and various facets of socio-economic development (including tourism). It is hoped that ZAWA will in the foreseeable future provide holistic population estimates and maintain viable populations in all the key lion range areas.
Lions in the News
|26th January 2014||Lion Cubs Born in Liuwa Plain National Park in Zambia – A Major Milestone in Lion Restoration Programme||html|
|28th October 2013||An update on the lion queen of Liuwa Plain National Park||html|
|17th April 2013||Is killing lions a solution to wildlife human conflicts?||html|
|10th January 2013||Masebo bans hunting of lions but stakeholders say its another emotional move||html|
|10th January 2013||Zambia bans hunting of lions and leopards||html|
|2nd January 2013||Zambia bans hunting for next five years||html|
|6th December 2012||Hunting concessions: Guy Scott, Sylvia Masebo’s corruption exposed||html|
|4th December 2012||Lady Liuwa Forms a Pride||html|
|19th October 2012||Who invited YOU?! The moment a crocodile tries to crash a lion's dinner party||html|
|4th October 2012||LADY LIUWA AND HER PROTÉGÉ COME TOGETHER IN LION BOMA||html|
|1st October 2012||Liuwa lioness killed by poachers||html|
|1st February 2012||Lady of Liuwa gets 2 sisters as lionesses are relocated to Liuwa National Park||html|
|10th September 2011||Millionaire Sir David Scholey Poses With Lion He Killed For Pleasure In Zambia||html|
|25th July 2011||Man eaten in Zambia lion attack||html|
|6th December 2009||How a lonely lioness found love with a little help from her friends||html|
|1st May 2009||Male lions translocated to Liuwa Plain National Park||html|
|28th July 2008||PH mauled by lion in Zambia||html|
|Lion of Zambia ministry||html|
|Investigations of the African lion in Zambia: assessing population distribution, and abundance, genetic studies, and development of a regional age-based trophy selection program.||html|
|Lion Camp South Luangwa||html|
|Rarely seen white lion cubs in Zambia||html|
|Hunting lions in Zambia||html|
|Zambia lion project||html|
|Protecting Zambia's Wildlife Heritage: Wild Dog and Lion Anti-Snaring Teams||html|
|Social variation of lions in a male-depopulated area in Zambia||html|
|“Canned” Lion hunting in Zambia?||html|
|The Last Lioness||html|
|Lion Country Series 2||html|
|Lion Country Series 1||html|
|Lion attack in Zambia WARNING: Some may find this footage of a lion attacking a hunter, resulting in the death of the lion, distressing||html|