RELEASE PROGRAM: LIONS IN THE PROGRAM

ALERT maintains a stud book of all lions owned by the charity.  Our operational partners Antelope Park and Lion Encounter operate the same system for all lions owned by them.  All lions are micro-chipped and a register is maintained with local wildlife authorities and consultant vets.

THE FOLLOWING LIONS ARE OWNED BY ALERT:

The following animals are owned by ALERT, having been donated to the Charity by Antelope Park or Lion Encounter Zambia, or are the offspring of those lions that have been born within release areas.

Year Opening
Balance
In Out Born Died Closing
Balance
Net
Change
2008 0 6 (i) 0 0 0 6 +6
2009 6 0 0 0 0 6 +0
2010 6 2 (ii) 0 0 0 8 +2
2011 8 7 (iii)   0         15 (iv) 10 (v)  20 +12
2012 20 0 0 3 (iv) 3 (v) 20 +0
2013 20 0 0 3 (vi) 0 23 +3
2014 23 0 0 3 (vi) 0 26 +3
2015 26 0 0 0 0 26 +0
2016 26 0 0 0 1 (vii) 25 -1
Total   15 0 24 14   +25

 

Location No. Status Lions
Ngamo 6 Released Ashanti, Kenge, Kwali, Milo, Nala (viii), Phyre
  5 Born in the release site MiAs4, MiAs5, MiAt1, MiKe3, MiKe4
Dambwa 6 Released Kela, Kwandi, Loma, Leya, Rusha2, Zulu
  6 Born in the release site ZuLe1, ZuLe2, ZuLe3, ZuRs1, ZuRs2, ZuRs3
Antelope Park 1 Sanctuary Athena (ix)
Livingstone 1 Sanctuary Temi (x)
TOTAL 25    

Figures correct as at 1st May 2016

The Ngamo release site is 403 acres/163ha in size and located adjacent to Antelope Park, on the outskirts of Gweru in central Zimbabwe.  The Dambwa release site is 707 acres / 286ha in size and located within the Dambwa Forest on the outskirts of Livingstone in southern Zambia.

Notes

(i)  Ashanti, Athena, Kenge, Nala, Narnia and Phyre were donated to ALERT by Antelope Park

(ii)  Kwali & Milo were donated to ALERT by Antelope Park

(iii)  Kela, Kwandi, Loma, Leya, Rusha2, Temi & Zulu were donated to ALERT by Lion Encounter Zambia

(iv)  These 18 births occurred within the Ngamo release site post-release and comprised of seven litters (3 litters of 2 cubs and 4 litters of 3 cubs). Cubs born in release sites are not given names but receive a code denoting their father, mother and number.  For example MIAT1 is the first cub to be given a code that was born to Milo and Athena.

(v)  Of the 13 lions recorded as having died 6 were cubs born to the Ngamo pride post-release that failed to thrive.  Lions often lose their first litter and this level of reproductive success was to be expected.  The remaining 7 deaths were cubs that were killed, or believed to have been killed, by pride members of the Ngamo pride.  

(vi)  These 6 births occurred within the Dambwa release site post-release and comprised of two litters, each of three cubs.  Cubs born in release sites are not given names but receive a code denoting their father, mother and number.  For example ZURS1 is the first cub to be given a code that was born to Zulu and Rusha.

(vii)  Narnia was euthanized on 30th April 2016.  A statement on this, and the events leading up to this decision is provided here.

(viii)  Nala was given sanctuary from another breeder to save them from being euthanized.  Nala was successfully integrated into the release program; however, as she is inbred, she was spayed to avoid uncontrolled breeding of potentially weak genes within the released pride.

(ix)  Athena was observed acting in a predatory manner towards some of the cubs that were born to the Ngamo pride post-release.  She was removed from the release site on 28th October 2011 and placed at Antelope Park’s lion enclosures.

(x)  Temi was removed from the Dambwa Release site and placed back in the lion enclosures following indications that she had been ousted from the pride.  A full description of the events leading up to this decision can be found here.

ANTELOPE PARK (Gweru), LION ENCOUNTER (Victoria Falls), WILDLIFE ENCOUNTER (Livingstone)

The following animals are owned by Antelope Park, Lion Encounter or Wildlife Encounter, the commercial operators that founded the African Lion Rehabilitation & Release into the Wild Programme and with which ALERT is partnered.  ALERT presents only summary information here; any queries should be directed to the owners as ALERT does not hold detailed records of lions not owned by the Charity. 

Year Opening
Balance
In (ii)    Out (iii) Born   Died (iv) Closing
Balance
Net
Change
2005 51 (i) 3 2 7 7 52 +1
2006 52 6 0 17 6 69 +17
2007 69 0 0 10 6 73 +4
2008 73 17 6 0 2 82 +9
2009 82 6 4 8 2 90 +2
2010 90 15 2 7 6 104 +14
2011 104 13 7 6 10 106 +2
2012 106 8 1 12 11 114 +8
2013 114 4 0 11 4 125 +11
2014 125 2 0 14 4 137 +12
2015 137 0 0 8 4 141 +4
2016 141 0 0 0 2 139 -2
Total   74 22 100 64   +88

 

Location  No.  Status No. Lions
Antelope Park 98 Part of the Release Program 68 Achillies, Africa, Alika, Amandla, Amani, Amghela, Apollo, Arthur, Arusha, Casper, Chabalala, Chaka, Chando, Chengeta, Chete, Chisa, Chobe, Chundu, Dala, Damisi, Dingane, Echo, Jabari, Jelani, Kanu, Kariba, Kaya, Kosey, Kundiso,  Kwezi, Laili, Landela, Lina, Lisha, Lokothula, Lozi, Ltalo, Luangwa, Lungile, Mamba, Mambo, Mana, Masai,  Maximus, Maxwell, Meeka, Mufasa, Paka, Paza, Penduka, Penya, Phoenix, Praise, Rusizi, Ruva, Ruvubu, Sahara, Sango, Savuti, Sengwa, Sikumi, Swahili, Tamuka, Thuli, Tonga, Tsavo, Wadiwa, Washe
    Sanctuary A (v) 10 Amy, Ariel, Cheeky, Chemma, Cleo, Elsa, Emma, Lulu, Melanie, Zuva
    Sanctuary B (v) 4 Ezulu, Nadia, Savannah, Shingalana
    Sanctuary C (v) 16 Bakari, Batoka, Big Boy, Boma, Kenya, Kufara, Kutanga, Lola, Mara, Monde, Moyo, Mvuthu, Nandi, Simba, Slwane, Soriah
Lion Encounter Zimbabwe 8 Part of the Release Program 8 Fumani, Lalapanzi, Lekker, Lila, Liuwa, Pendo, Pezulu, Vithikazi
Lion Encounter Zambia 33 Part of the Release Program 29 Dendi, Kasama, Kovu, Madoda, Munali, Nacha, Nalo, Namwala, Ndulu, Nembwe, Nkoya, Nuru, Rundi, Saba, Sadiki, Safiya, Samaya, Sarabi, Sekani, Sekulu, Songwe, Tanaka2, Tisa, Toka, Tswana, Tula, Zambezi, Zamfara, Zaria
    Sanctuary A (v) 2 Nyika, Subi
    Sanctuary B (v) 2 Bemba, Bisa
TOTAL 139      

Figures correct as at 8th April 2016

As at 8th April 2016 a total of 142 lions (including 3 owned by ALERT) of differing ages were being held in enclosures within the programme:

Total enclosure space in use:             52,282 m2    
Average enclosure size in use:             1,341 m2

Average area per lion (all lions):             368 m2
Average area per adult lion (>4years):   477 m2

Average number of lions in an enclosure:    3.6    

Based on the ages and weights of the lions currently in the program, on average the enclosures are 211% larger than the suggested minimum by the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) and 532% larger than those suggested by the animal welfare organization Big Cat Rescue (BCR).

An ongoing program to upgrade facilities exists building larger and more complex enclosures as funds become available.

Notes

(i)  These 51 lions form the founder population for the release program

(ii)  74 lions have been acquired during the period:

a.       2005: 3 (Becka, TJ & J-Leigh) were rescued from a breeder within Zimbabwe.

b.       2006: 6 (Big Boy, Nala, Nandi, Narnia, Nduna & Nirvana) were rescued from a breeder within Zimbabwe.

c.       2008: 7 (Batoka, Bhubesi, Lee-Lee, Lola, Simba, Slwane, Soriah) were rescued from two different breeders within Zimbabwe.  10 (Kela, Kwandi, Leya, Loma, Rundi, Rusha, Temi, Toka, Tswana, Zulu) were brought in from a breeder in South Africa to form the founder population of Lion Encounter Zambia.

d.       2009: 6 (Damisi, Dhakiya, Jabari, Jelani, Kanu, Kosey) were brought in from a breeder within Zimbabwe to extend genetic diversity within the program.

e.       2010: 8 (Bakari, Boma, Kenya, Kufara, Kutanga, Monde, Moyo, Mvuthu) were rescued from a breeder within Zimbabwe.  7 (Bemba, Bisa, Nyika, Rufiji, Ruma, Rwanda, Subi) were brought into the program at the request from a breeder in South Africa.

f.        2011: 1 (Mara) was rescued from a breeder within Zimbabwe.  12 (Chete, Damara, Dendi, Laili, Madoda, Munali, Paza, Savuti, Sengwa, Zambezi, Zamfara, Zaria) were brought in from a breeder in South Africa to extend genetic diversity within the program.

g.       2012: 1 (Dynamite) was a wild lion captured under problem animal control in the Livingstone area of Zambia.  7 (Kasama, Kovu, Namwala, Nembwe, Nkoya, Thembile, Thuli) were brought in from a breeder in South Africa to extend genetic diversity within the program.

h.       2013: 4 (Rusizi, Ruvubu, Wadiwa, Washe) were brought in from a breeder within Zimbabwe to extend genetic diversity within the program.

i.       2014: 2 (Fumani, Vithikazi)) were brought in from a breeder in South Africa to extend genetic diversity within the program.

(iii)  22 lions have left ownership during the period:

a.       2005: 2 (Abby, Tamba) were sold to another lion breeder within Zimbabwe.

b.       2008: 6 (Ashanti, Athena, Kenge, Nala, Narnia, Phyre) were donated to ALERT by Antelope Park for release.

c.       2009: 2: (Alice, Mickey) were given to Zambezi Nature Sanctuary in Victoria Falls at their request.  Alice (aged 9) was stunted. Mickey (aged 7) had deformities of his reproductive system.  1 (Nduna) was given to Ballyvaughan Sanctuary in Harare at their request.  Nduna had been rescued by Antelope Park from a breeder within Zimbabwe and was inbred.  1 (Teddy) was given to Imire wildlife conservation centre at their request.  Teddy was no longer required as a breeding male at Antelope Park.

d.       2010: 2 (Kwali, Milo) were donated to ALERT by Antelope Park for release       .

e.       2011: 7 (Kela, Kwandi, Leya, Loma, Rusha, Temi, Toka, Zulu) were donated to ALERT by Lion Encounter Zambia for release.

f.       2012: 1 (Dynamite) was a wild lion captured during problem animal control that was given to the Zambia Wildlife Authority for release into Kafue National Park.

(iv)  64 lions have died during the period:

a.       2005: 2 (unnamed) were cubs that failed to thrive during the first days post-partum – known cause was enlarged hearts at birth.  2 (J-Leigh, TJ) were killed by a train in Zambezi National Park.  1 (Leo) was euthanized due to complications caused by vitamin A deficiency.  1 (Lucky) was euthanized due to hip displacement.  1 (Rusha) was euthanized after suffering a broken leg sustained during a fight with other lions.

b.       2006: 2 (unnamed) were cubs that failed to thrive during the first days post-partum – known cause was pneumonia.  4 (Kate, Kitty, Lucy, Penga) were euthanized due to deformities caused by old age.

c.       2007: 4 (Josephine, Mampara, Muti, Nirvana) were killed during fights with other lions.  1 (Becka) died from complications arising from leukemia).  1 (Rosie) died as a result of an eptopic pregnancy.

d.       2008: 1 (PK) was found dead in her enclosure – indications are that she choked on what she was eating.  1 (Amanzi) died as a resulting of multiple internal organ failures.

e.       2009: 2 (unnamed) were cubs that failed to thrive during the first days post-partum – specific cause unknown.

f.        2010: 3 (2 unnamed, Special K) were cubs that failed to thrive during the first days post-partum – one was still born the others died from no known specific cause.  1 (Sandy) was euthanized after she attacked a young girl who pushed her hand through the enclosure fence.  1 (Kumuka) was euthanized due to heart problems.  1 (Langa) died due to a peptic ulcer and perforated stomach lining.    

g.       2011:  5 (unnamed) were cubs that failed to thrive during the first days post-partum – one was still born, one has a twisted gut and the others died from no known specific cause. 1 (Chipo) died from a disease affecting her lungs, possible related to her FIV+ status. 2 (Dhakiya, Luke) died as a result of fights with other lions. 2 (Rufiji, Ruma) were euthanized due to degenerative joint disorder.

h.       2012: 5 (unnamed) were cubs that failed to thrive during the first days post-partum – two were still born, one was crushed by its mother and two were neglected by their mother.  1 (Rwanda) was euthanized due to degenerative joint disorder.  2 (Kali, Lee-Lee) died as a result of fights with other lions.  3 (Acacia, Amber, Disa) died as a result of multiple internal organ failures.

i.        2013: 1 (Puma) died from hepatitis.  1 (Tanaka) died from rabies.  1 (Thulani) died as a result of a fight with other lions.

j.        2014: 1 (Bhubesi) died as a result of a fight with other lions.  1 (Msasa) died due to complications during the birth of cubs. 1 (Damara) was euthanized after treatment for a range of neurological symptoms failed to resolve the problems.  Post mortem indicated abnormal growth of the brain casing, possibly caused by hypovitaminosis A. 1 (Tunya) was euthanized after treatment for a broken leg was not successful.  It was assumed he broke it after falling out of a tree during the night in his enclosure.

k.      2015: 2 (Lewa, Thembile) died as a result of a fights with other lions. 2 (Anna, Mafuta) died from acute kidney failure as a consequence of old age.

l.       2016: 1 (Etosha) died of liver failure.  1 (Runako) was euthanised aged 16 weeks after a birth defect in the cubs kidneys was discovered.

(v)  34 lions are being provided sanctuary for the following reasons:

a.       Type A:  12 (Amy, Ariel, Cheeky, Chemma, Cleo, Elsa, Emma, Lulu, Melanie, Nyika, Subi, Zuva) are breeding females deemed to be too old to continue with that status.

b.       Type B:  6 (Bemba, Bisa, Ezulu, Nadia, Savannah, Shingalana) have been deemed not suitable for breeding or release due to identified genetic defects.  

c.       Type C:  16 (Bakari, Batoka, Big Boy, Boma, Kenya, Kufara, Kutanga, Lola, Mara, Monde, Moyo, Mvuthu, Nandi, Soriah, Simba, Slwane) lions were brought to Antelope Park from other lion owners / breeders, in most cases to save them from being euthanised.  Where possible such lions are being integrated into the release programme.