[1] IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group (2006) Conservation Strategy for the Lion in West and Central Africa. IUCN – Regional Office of Central Africa (BRAO and the West and Central African Lion Conservation Network (ROCAL). Yaounde, Cameroon. (pdf)

[2] Bauer H, van der Merwe S (2004) Inventory of free-ranging lion Panthera leo in Africa.  Oryx 38(1): 26–31. (pdf)  See also Bauer, H., van der Merwe, S. (2002) The African Lion Database.  Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University & African Lion Working Group. (pdf)

[3] Chardonnet P (ed.) (2002) Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey. International Foundation for the Conservation of Wildlife, France & Conservation Force, USA.

[4] Ferreras P, Cousins SH (1996) The use of a Delphi technique with GIS for estimating the global abundance of top predators: The lion in Africa.  Unpublished report, International Eco Technology Research Centre, Cranfield University, UK.

[5] Bauer H, Nowell K, Packer C (2008) Panthera leo. In: 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. [accessed 16 March 2009]. (html)

[6] Nowell K, Jackson P (1996) Wild Cat. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan.  IUCN, 382 pp. (book – purchase required)

[7] Myers N (1975) The silent savannahs. International Wildlife 5(5): 5-10

[8] Myers N (1984) Conservation of Africa’s cats:  Problems and opportunities. In: Cats of the world:  Biology, conservation and management (1986) (eds Miller, S.D. and Everett, D.D.) pp. 437 - 446.  National Wildlife Federation, Washington DC. (book – purchase required)

[9] Schaller G (1972) The Serengeti Lion.  Chicago:  Univ. of Chicago Press. (book – purchase required)

[10] Guggisberg CA (1961)  Simba: the life of the lion.  Cape Town: Howard Timmins (book – purchase required)

[11] Wildlife Conservation Trust of India (2011) Asiatic Lion – Population.  Asiatic Lion Information Centre.  (html)

[12] IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group (2006) Conservation Strategy for the Lion (Panthera leo) in Eastern and Southern Africa.  Eastern and Southern African Lion Workshop, Johannesburg, 8 – 13 January 2006.  IUCN SSC Cat Specialist Group report, 55 pages. (pdf)

[13] Chardonnet P, Mésochina P, Renaud P, Bento C, Conjo D, Fusari A, Begg C, Foloma M, Pariela F (2009) Conservation status of the lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758) in Mozambique.  SCI Foundation, CAMPFIRE Association, DNAC / MITUR & IGF Foundation, Maputo, June 2009. (pdf)

[14] Gorongosa (2009) [html]

[15] Kenya Wildlife Service (2010) National conservation and management strategy for lion and spotted hyena in Kenya (2009 – 2014)   (pdf)

[16] Henschel P, Azani D, Burton C, Malanda G, Saidu Y, Sam M, Hunter L (2010) Lions status updates from five range countries in West and Central Africa.  CATNews 52 Spring 2010. (pdf)

[17] Riggio JS (2011) The African lion (Panthera leo): A continent-wide species distribution study and population analysis (pdf)

[18] Björklund M (2003) The risk of inbreeding due to habitat loss in the lion (Panthera leo).  Conservation Genetics 4: 515–523. (pdf – purchase required)

[19] Nyanganji G, Saidu Y, Henschel P, Dunn A (2012). 2011 survey of lions (Panthera leo) in Yankari Game Reserve and Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. Panthera (pdf)