[1] Simpson DP (1979) Cassell’s Latin Dictionary (5th ed.) London: Cassell Ltd. pp. 883.

[2] Liddell HG, Scott R (1980) A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
[3] Simpson J, Weiner E (eds) ed (1989). “Lion”. Oxford English Dictionary (2nd edition ed.) Oxford: Clarendon Press.
[4] “Panther". Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 24-07-09.
[5] Linnaeus C (1758) Systema naturae per regna tria naturae sccundum classis, ordines, genera, sepecies cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tenth edition. Volume 1. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, Sweden.
[6] Mazák V (1981) Panthera tigris. Mammalian Species 152: 1 – 8.
[7] Turner A, Antón M (1997) The big cats and their fossil relatives. Columbia University Press, New York.
[8] Stringer C (2002) Modern human origins; progress and prospects. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 357, 563 – 579.
[9] Yamaguchi N, Cooper A, Werdelin L, Macdonald DW (2004) Evolution of the mane and group-living in the lion (Panthera leo): A review. J. Zool. Lond. 263: 329 – 342.
[10] Kurtén B (1968) Pleistocene mammals of Europe. London: Weidenfield and Nicolson.
[11] Burger J, Rosendahl W, Loreille O, Hemmer H, Eriksson T, Götherström A, Hiller J, Collins MJ, Wess T, Alt KW
(2004) Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 30: 841-9.
[12] Patterson BD (2007) On the Nature and Significance of Variability in Lions (Panthera leo). Evolutionary Biology (2007) 34:55–60
[13] Patterson BD (2004) The lions of Tsavo: Exploring the legacy of Africa’s notorious man-eaters. New York: McGraw-Hill
[14] Dubach J, Patterson BD, Briggs MB, Venzke K, Flamand J, et al. (2005) Molecular genetic variation across the southern and eastern geographic ranges of the African lion Panthera leo. Conservation Genetics 6: 15–24.
[15] Barnett R, Yamaguchi N, Barnes I, Cooper A (2006) The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B, 273: 2119–2125
[16] Haas SK, Hayssen V, Krausman PR (2005) Panthera leo in Mammalian Species, American Society of Mammalogists 762: 1 – 11.
[17] IUCN (2009) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. . Retrieved 02-08-09.
[18] Schaller G (1972) The Serengeti Lion. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
[19] Guggisberg CA (1961) Simba: the life of the lion. Cape Town: Howard Timmins
[20] Wildlife Conservation Trust of India (2006) Asiatic Lion – Population. Asiatic Lion Information Centre. Retrieved 02-11-09.
[21] Nowell K, Jackson P (1996) Wild Cat. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, 382 pp.
[22] Myers N (1975) The silent savannahs. International Wildlife 5(5): 5-10.
[23] Myers N (1984) Conservation of Africa’s cats: Problems and opportunities Pp 437-446 in S.D. Miller and D.D. Everett, eds. 1986. Cats of the world: Biology, conservation and management. National Wildlife Federation, Washington DC.
[24] Bauer H, van der Merwe S (2004) Inventory of free-ranging lion Panthera leo in Africa. Oryx 38(1): 26–31.
[25] Chardonnet P (ed.) (2002) Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey. International Foundation for the Conservation of Wildlife, France & Conservation Force, USA.
[26] Omondi P (2009) In: Kenya on the brink of recording big five extinction. [accessed 7 June 2009].
[27] Bauer H, Nowell K, Packer C (2008) Panthera leo. In: 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. [accessed 16 March 2009].
[28] Roelke ME, Pecon-Slattery J, Taylor S, Citino S, Brown E, Packer C, et al. (2006) T-lymphocyte profiles in FIV infected wild lions and pumas reveal CD4 depletion. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(2): 234-248.
[29] Roelke ME, Brown MA, Troyer JL, Winterbach H, Winterbach C, et al. (2009) Pathological manifestations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in wild African lions. Journal of Virology 390 (1): 1 – 12.
[30] Roelke-Parker ME, Munson L, Packer C, Kock R, Cleaveland S, et al. (1996) A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo). Nature 379: 441-5.
[31] Packer C, Pusey AE, Rowley H, Gilbert DA, Martenson J, O’Brien SJ (1991) Case study of a population bottleneck: lions of the Ngorongoro crater. Conservation Biology 5: 219–230.
[32] McEwan WA, McMonagle EL, Logan N, Serra RC, Kat P, et al. (2008) Genetically divergent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus from the domestic cat (Felis catus) and the African lion (Panthera leo) share usage of CD134 and CXCR4 as entry receptors. Journal of Virology 82(21): 10953-58.
[33] Ferreras P, Cousins SH (1996) The use of a Delphi technique with GIS for estimating the global abundance of top predators: The lion in Africa. Unpublished report, International Eco Technology Research Centre, Cranfield University, UK.
[34] Meinertzhagen R (1938) Some weights and measurements of large mammals. Pro. Zool. Soc. London 108: 433-39
[35] Wilson V (1968) Weights of some mammals from Eastern Zambia. Arnoldia (Rhodesia) 3: 1 – 19.
[36] Smuts GL (1982) Lion Johannesburg: MacMillan.
[37] Smuts GL (1976) Populations characteristics and recent history of lions in two parts of the Kruger National Park. Koedoe: 19: 153 – 164.
[38] Smithers, R.H.N. edited by P. Apps. Smither’s Mammals of Southern Africa. Third Edition (Struik) pp.257 – 260
[39] Groves CP (1982) Cranial and dental characteristics in the systematic of Old World Felidae. Carnivore: 5: 28 – 29.
[40] Rosevear DR (1974) The carnivores of West Africa. British Museum (Natural History), London, United Kingdom
[41] Pocock RI (1951) Catalogue of the genus Felis. Trustees of the British Museum, London, United Kingdom.
[42] Rudnai JA (1973) The social life of the lion. Medical and Technical Publishing, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
[43] Ewer RF (1973) The Carnivores Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York
[44] McComb K, Packer C, Pusey A (1994) Roaring and numerical assessment in contests between groups of female lions, Panthera leo. Animal Behaviour 47:379 – 387
[45] McComb K, Pusey A, Packer C, Grinnell J (1993) Female lions can identify potentially infanticidal males from their roars. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. Biological Sciences 252: 59 – 64
[46] Starfield AM, Furniss PR, Smuts GL (1981) A model of lion population dynamics as a function of social behaviour In: Dynamics of large mammal populations ed: Fowler CW and Smith TD pp. 121 – 34. New York, Wiley Interscience.
[47] Pienaar U de V (1969) Predator-prey relationships amongst the larger mammals of the Kruger National Park Koedoe 12: 108 – 176
[48] Stander PE (1997) The ecology of lions and conflict with people in north-eastern Namibia pp. 10 – 17 In: Proceedings of a symposium on lions and leopards as game ranch animals Ed: van Heerden J. Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa.
[49] Scheel D, Packer C (1995) Variation in predation by lions: tracking a moveable feast. Pp 299 – 314 In: Serengeti II: research, management and conservation of an ecosystem Ed: Areese P, Sinclair ARE, University of Chicago Press, Illinois.
[50] Ewer RF (1973) The carnivores Cornell University Press, Ithica, New York
[51] Eloff FC (1973) Lion predation in the Kalahri Gemsbok National Park. Journal of Southern African Wildlife Management Association 3: 59 – 63
[52] Eloff FC (1984) Food ecology of the Kalahari lion Panthera leo vernayi Koedoe 27 (supplement): 249 – 258
[53] Funston PJ, Mills MGL, Biggs HC, Richardson PRK (1998) Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socioecological implications. Animal Behaviour 56: 1333-1345
[54] Rudnai JA (1974) The pattern of lion predation in Nairobi Park East African Wildlife Journal 12: 213 – 225
[55] Durant SM (1998) Competition refuges and coexistence: an example from Serengeti carnivores. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 370 – 386
[56] Viljoen PC (1997) Ecology of lions in northern Botswana pp. 37 – 49 In: Proceedings of a symposium on lions and leopards as game ranch animals Ed: van Heerden J. Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa.
[57] Van Orsdol KG (1984) Foraging behaviour and hunting success of lions in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda African Journal of Ecology 22: 79 – 99.
[58] Tsukahara T (1993) Lions eat chimpanzees: the first evidence of predation by lions on wild chimpanzees American Journal of Primatology 29: 1 – 11
[59] Bridgeford PA (1985) Unusual diet of the lion Panthera leo in the Skeleton Coast Park. Madoqua 14: 187 – 188
[60] Smuts GL (1979) Diet of lions and spotted hyaenas assessed from stomach contents S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 9: 19 – 25
[61] Stander PE (1992) Foraging dynamics of lions in a semi-arid environment Canadian Journal of Zoology 70: 8 – 21
[62] Van Orsdol KG, Hanby JP, Bygott JD (1985) Ecological correlates of lion social organization (Panthera leo) Journal of Zoology (London) 212: 379 – 397
[63] Viljoen PC (1993) The effects of changes in prey availability on lion predation in a large natural ecosystem in northern Botswana. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 65: 193 - 213
[64] Packer C, Pusey AE, Rowley H, Gilbert DA, Martenson J, O’Brien J (1990) Case study of a population bottleneck: lions of the Ngorongoro Crater. Conservation Biology 5: 219 – 230
[65] Funston PJ, Mills MGL (1997) Aspects of sociality in Kruger Park lions: the role of males. In: Proceedings of a symposium on lions and leopards as game ranch animals. Onderstepoort, October 1997 pp 18 – 26. Ed: van Heerden J.
[66] Hunter LTB (1998) The behavioural ecology of reintroduced lions and cheetahs in the Phinda Resource Reserve. Kwa-Zulu-Natal, South Africa Ph.D thesis, University of Pretoria.
[67] Eloff F (2002) Hunters of the Dunes: the Story of the Kalahari lion Cape Town. Sunbird Publishing.
[68] Bertram BC (1975) Social factors influencing reproduction in wild lions Journal of Zoology (London)
[69] Packer C, Pusey AE (1983) Male takeovers and female reproductive parameters; a simulation of oestrus synchrony in lions (Panthera leo). Animal Behaviour 31: 334 - 340
[70] Rudnai, JA (1973) Reproductive biology of lions (Panthera leo massaica Neumann) in Nairobi National Park. E. Afr. Wildl. J. II: 241 – 53
[71] Packer C, Pusey AE (1987) Intrasexual cooperation and the sex ratio in African lions. Am. Nat 130: 636 – 642.
[72] Davies EM, Boersma PD (1984) Why lionesses copulate with more than one male. American Naturalist 123: 594-611.
[73] Packer C (1986) The ecology of sociality in felids pp 429 – 451 in: Ecological aspects of social evolution (eds: Rubenstein DI, Wrangham RW) Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
[74] Schramm RD, Briggs MB, Reeves JJ (1994) Spontaneous and induced ovulation in the lion (Panthera leo) Zoo Biology 13: 301 – 307.
[75] Smuts GL, Hanks J, Whyte IJ (1978) Reproduction and social organization of lions from Kruger National Park. Carnivore I:17 – 28
[76] Hemmer H (1979) Gestation period and postnatal development in felids. Carnivore 2 (2, supplement): 90 – 100
[77] Oftedal OT, Gittleman JL (1989) Patterns of energy output during reproduction in carnivores pp 355 – 378 in: Carnivore behaviour, ecology and evolution ed: Gittleman JL, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
[78] Stevenson-Hamilton J (1954) Wild Life in South Africa Cassell, London
[79] Patterson G (1988) Cry for the Lions Sandton, Frandson Publishers
[80] Orford HJL, Perrin MR, Berry HH (1988) Contraception, reproduction and demography of free-ranging Etosha lions (Panthera leo) J. Zool., Lond. 216: 717 – 733
[81] Bertram BC (1975) The social system of lions Scientific American 232: 54 – 65
[82] Bertram BC (1979) Serengeti predators and their social systems Pp. 159 – 179 In: Serengeti: dynamics of an ecosystem Eds: Sincalir RE Norton-Griffiths M. University of Chicago Press, Illinois.
[83] Elliott JP, Cowan IM, Holling CS (1976) Prey capture by the African lion Canadian Journal of Zoology 55: 1811 – 1828
[84] Packer C, Ruttan L (1988) The evolution of cooperative hunting American naturalist 132: 159 – 198
[85] Stander PE (1992) Cooperative hunting in lions: the role of the individual Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 29: 445 – 454
[86] Packer C, Pusey AE (1982) Cooperation and competition within coalitions of male lions; kin selection or game theory? Nature 296: 740 – 742.
[87] Packer C, Pusey AE (1997) Divided we fall: cooperation among lions Scientific American 276: 52 – 59
[88] Scheel D (1993) Profitability, encounter rates, and prey choice of African lions Behavioural Ecology 4: 90 – 97
[89] Scheel D (1993) Watching for lions in the grass: the usefulness of scanning and its effects during hunts Animal Behaviour 46: 695 - 704
[90] Retrieved 02-08-09.
[91] McBride C (1977) The White Lions of Timbavati. E. Stanton.
[92] Grisham J (2001) Lion. In Bell CE Encyclopaedia of the World’s Zoos. Chofago: Fitzroy Dearborn. Vol. 2, G-P: pp. 733 – 739